我应该在 Python 字典上使用 'has_key()' 或 'in' 吗?

d = {'a': 1, 'b': 2}
'a' in d
True
d = {'a': 1, 'b': 2}
d.has_key('a')
True

答案

in绝对是 pythonic。

实际上has_key()已在 Python 3.x 中删除

$ python -mtimeit -s'd=dict.fromkeys(range(99))' '12 in d'
10000000 loops, best of 3: 0.0983 usec per loop
$ python -mtimeit -s'd=dict.fromkeys(range(99))' 'd.has_key(12)'
1000000 loops, best of 3: 0.21 usec per loop

根据 python docs

has_key()不推荐使用key in dkey in d

当(且仅当)要求代码必须可由 2.3 之前的 Python 版本(可key in dict中引入key in dict )运行时,使用dict.has_key() )。

def __contains__(self, x):
    return self.has_key(x)

has_key是一个字典方法,但是in可以在任何集合上工作,即使缺少__contains__in也会使用任何其他方法来迭代该集合以找出答案。

ages = {}

# Add a couple of names to the dictionary
ages['Sue'] = 23

ages['Peter'] = 19

ages['Andrew'] = 78

ages['Karren'] = 45

# use of 'in' in if condition instead of function_name.has_key(key-name).
if 'Sue' in ages:

    print "Sue is in the dictionary. She is", ages['Sue'], "years old"

else:

    print "Sue is not in the dictionary"
$ python3.5 -mtimeit -s'd=dict.fromkeys(range( 99))' 'd.has_key(12)'
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/usr/local/Cellar/python3/3.5.2_3/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.5/lib/python3.5/timeit.py", line 301, in main
    x = t.timeit(number)
  File "/usr/local/Cellar/python3/3.5.2_3/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/3.5/lib/python3.5/timeit.py", line 178, in timeit
    timing = self.inner(it, self.timer)
  File "<timeit-src>", line 6, in inner
    d.has_key(12)
AttributeError: 'dict' object has no attribute 'has_key'

$ python2.7 -mtimeit -s'd=dict.fromkeys(range(  99))' 'd.has_key(12)'
10000000 loops, best of 3: 0.0872 usec per loop

$ python2.7 -mtimeit -s'd=dict.fromkeys(range(1999))' 'd.has_key(12)'
10000000 loops, best of 3: 0.0858 usec per loop

$ python3.5 -mtimeit -s'd=dict.fromkeys(range(  99))' '12 in d'
10000000 loops, best of 3: 0.031 usec per loop

$ python3.5 -mtimeit -s'd=dict.fromkeys(range(1999))' '12 in d'
10000000 loops, best of 3: 0.033 usec per loop

$ python3.5 -mtimeit -s'd=dict.fromkeys(range(  99))' '12 in d.keys()'
10000000 loops, best of 3: 0.115 usec per loop

$ python3.5 -mtimeit -s'd=dict.fromkeys(range(1999))' '12 in d.keys()'
10000000 loops, best of 3: 0.117 usec per loop
t.has_key(ew)
key = ew
if key not in t