Java 类中的规范名称,简单名称和类名称有什么区别?

在 Java 中,这些之间有什么区别:

Object o1 = ....
o1.getClass().getSimpleName();
o1.getClass().getName();
o1.getClass().getCanonicalName();

我已经多次检查过 Javadoc,但这从来不能很好地解释它。我也进行了测试,但没有反映出调用这些方法背后的任何实际含义。

答案

class ClassNameTest {
    public static void main(final String... arguments) {
        printNamesForClass(
            int.class,
            "int.class (primitive)");
        printNamesForClass(
            String.class,
            "String.class (ordinary class)");
        printNamesForClass(
            java.util.HashMap.SimpleEntry.class,
            "java.util.HashMap.SimpleEntry.class (nested class)");
        printNamesForClass(
            new java.io.Serializable(){}.getClass(),
            "new java.io.Serializable(){}.getClass() (anonymous inner class)");
    }

    private static void printNamesForClass(final Class<?> clazz, final String label) {
        System.out.println(label + ":");
        System.out.println("    getName():          " + clazz.getName());
        System.out.println("    getCanonicalName(): " + clazz.getCanonicalName());
        System.out.println("    getSimpleName():    " + clazz.getSimpleName());
        System.out.println("    getTypeName():      " + clazz.getTypeName()); // added in Java 8
        System.out.println();
    }
}
int.class (primitive):
    getName():          int
    getCanonicalName(): int
    getSimpleName():    int
    getTypeName():      int

String.class (ordinary class):
    getName():          java.lang.String
    getCanonicalName(): java.lang.String
    getSimpleName():    String
    getTypeName():      java.lang.String

java.util.HashMap.SimpleEntry.class (nested class):
    getName():          java.util.AbstractMap$SimpleEntry
    getCanonicalName(): java.util.AbstractMap.SimpleEntry
    getSimpleName():    SimpleEntry
    getTypeName():      java.util.AbstractMap$SimpleEntry

new java.io.Serializable(){}.getClass() (anonymous inner class):
    getName():          ClassNameTest$1
    getCanonicalName(): null
    getSimpleName():    
    getTypeName():      ClassNameTest$1
package com.example;

public final class TestClassNames {
    private static void showClass(Class<?> c) {
        System.out.println("getName():          " + c.getName());
        System.out.println("getCanonicalName(): " + c.getCanonicalName());
        System.out.println("getSimpleName():    " + c.getSimpleName());
        System.out.println("toString():         " + c.toString());
        System.out.println();
    }

    private static void x(Runnable r) {
        showClass(r.getClass());
        showClass(java.lang.reflect.Array.newInstance(r.getClass(), 1).getClass()); // Obtains an array class of a lambda base type.
    }

    public static class NestedClass {}

    public class InnerClass {}

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        class LocalClass {}
        showClass(void.class);
        showClass(int.class);
        showClass(String.class);
        showClass(Runnable.class);
        showClass(SomeEnum.class);
        showClass(SomeAnnotation.class);
        showClass(int[].class);
        showClass(String[].class);
        showClass(NestedClass.class);
        showClass(InnerClass.class);
        showClass(LocalClass.class);
        showClass(LocalClass[].class);
        Object anonymous = new java.io.Serializable() {};
        showClass(anonymous.getClass());
        showClass(java.lang.reflect.Array.newInstance(anonymous.getClass(), 1).getClass()); // Obtains an array class of an anonymous base type.
        x(() -> {});
    }
}

enum SomeEnum {
   BLUE, YELLOW, RED;
}

@interface SomeAnnotation {}
getName():          void
getCanonicalName(): void
getSimpleName():    void
toString():         void

getName():          int
getCanonicalName(): int
getSimpleName():    int
toString():         int

getName():          java.lang.String
getCanonicalName(): java.lang.String
getSimpleName():    String
toString():         class java.lang.String

getName():          java.lang.Runnable
getCanonicalName(): java.lang.Runnable
getSimpleName():    Runnable
toString():         interface java.lang.Runnable

getName():          com.example.SomeEnum
getCanonicalName(): com.example.SomeEnum
getSimpleName():    SomeEnum
toString():         class com.example.SomeEnum

getName():          com.example.SomeAnnotation
getCanonicalName(): com.example.SomeAnnotation
getSimpleName():    SomeAnnotation
toString():         interface com.example.SomeAnnotation

getName():          [I
getCanonicalName(): int[]
getSimpleName():    int[]
toString():         class [I

getName():          [Ljava.lang.String;
getCanonicalName(): java.lang.String[]
getSimpleName():    String[]
toString():         class [Ljava.lang.String;

getName():          com.example.TestClassNames$NestedClass
getCanonicalName(): com.example.TestClassNames.NestedClass
getSimpleName():    NestedClass
toString():         class com.example.TestClassNames$NestedClass

getName():          com.example.TestClassNames$InnerClass
getCanonicalName(): com.example.TestClassNames.InnerClass
getSimpleName():    InnerClass
toString():         class com.example.TestClassNames$InnerClass

getName():          com.example.TestClassNames$1LocalClass
getCanonicalName(): null
getSimpleName():    LocalClass
toString():         class com.example.TestClassNames$1LocalClass

getName():          [Lcom.example.TestClassNames$1LocalClass;
getCanonicalName(): null
getSimpleName():    LocalClass[]
toString():         class [Lcom.example.TestClassNames$1LocalClass;

getName():          com.example.TestClassNames$1
getCanonicalName(): null
getSimpleName():    
toString():         class com.example.TestClassNames$1

getName():          [Lcom.example.TestClassNames$1;
getCanonicalName(): null
getSimpleName():    []
toString():         class [Lcom.example.TestClassNames$1;

getName():          com.example.TestClassNames$$Lambda$1/1175962212
getCanonicalName(): com.example.TestClassNames$$Lambda$1/1175962212
getSimpleName():    TestClassNames$$Lambda$1/1175962212
toString():         class com.example.TestClassNames$$Lambda$1/1175962212

getName():          [Lcom.example.TestClassNames$$Lambda$1;
getCanonicalName(): com.example.TestClassNames$$Lambda$1/1175962212[]
getSimpleName():    TestClassNames$$Lambda$1/1175962212[]
toString():         class [Lcom.example.TestClassNames$$Lambda$1;
//primitive Array
int demo[] = new int[5];
Class<? extends int[]> clzz = demo.getClass();
System.out.println(clzz.getName());
System.out.println(clzz.getCanonicalName());
System.out.println(clzz.getSimpleName());       

System.out.println();


//Object Array
Integer demo[] = new Integer[5]; 
Class<? extends Integer[]> clzz = demo.getClass();
System.out.println(clzz.getName());
System.out.println(clzz.getCanonicalName());
System.out.println(clzz.getSimpleName());
[I
int[]
int[]

[Ljava.lang.Integer;
java.lang.Integer[]
Integer[]
package a.b;
class C {
  static class D extends C {
  }
  D d;
  D[] ds;
}
// Primitive type
int.class.getName();          // -> int
int.class.getCanonicalName(); // -> int
int.class.getSimpleName();    // -> int

// Standard class
Integer.class.getName();          // -> java.lang.Integer
Integer.class.getCanonicalName(); // -> java.lang.Integer
Integer.class.getSimpleName();    // -> Integer

// Inner class
Map.Entry.class.getName();          // -> java.util.Map$Entry
Map.Entry.class.getCanonicalName(); // -> java.util.Map.Entry
Map.Entry.class.getSimpleName();    // -> Entry     

// Anonymous inner class
Class<?> anonymousInnerClass = new Cloneable() {}.getClass();
anonymousInnerClass.getName();          // -> somepackage.SomeClass$1
anonymousInnerClass.getCanonicalName(); // -> null
anonymousInnerClass.getSimpleName();    // -> // An empty string

// Array of primitives
Class<?> primitiveArrayClass = new int[0].getClass();
primitiveArrayClass.getName();          // -> [I
primitiveArrayClass.getCanonicalName(); // -> int[]
primitiveArrayClass.getSimpleName();    // -> int[]

// Array of objects
Class<?> objectArrayClass = new Integer[0].getClass();
objectArrayClass.getName();          // -> [Ljava.lang.Integer;
objectArrayClass.getCanonicalName(); // -> java.lang.Integer[]
objectArrayClass.getSimpleName();    // -> Integer[]
scala> case class C()
defined class C

scala> val c = C()
c: C = C()

scala> c.getClass.getSimpleName
java.lang.InternalError: Malformed class name
  at java.lang.Class.getSimpleName(Class.java:1330)
  ... 32 elided

scala> c.getClass.getCanonicalName
java.lang.InternalError: Malformed class name
  at java.lang.Class.getSimpleName(Class.java:1330)
  at java.lang.Class.getCanonicalName(Class.java:1399)
  ... 32 elided

scala> c.getClass.getName
res2: String = C
public void printReflectionClassNames(){
    StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer();
    Class clazz= buffer.getClass();
    System.out.println("Reflection on String Buffer Class");
    System.out.println("Name: "+clazz.getName());
    System.out.println("Simple Name: "+clazz.getSimpleName());
    System.out.println("Canonical Name: "+clazz.getCanonicalName());
    System.out.println("Type Name: "+clazz.getTypeName());
}

outputs:
Reflection on String Buffer Class
Name: java.lang.StringBuffer
Simple Name: StringBuffer
Canonical Name: java.lang.StringBuffer
Type Name: java.lang.StringBuffer
package com.practice;

public class ClassName {
public static void main(String[] args) {

  ClassName c = new ClassName();
  Class cls = c.getClass();

  // returns the canonical name of the underlying class if it exists
  System.out.println("Class = " + cls.getCanonicalName());    //Class = com.practice.ClassName
  System.out.println("Class = " + cls.getName());             //Class = com.practice.ClassName
  System.out.println("Class = " + cls.getSimpleName());       //Class = ClassName
  System.out.println("Class = " + Map.Entry.class.getName());             // -> Class = java.util.Map$Entry
  System.out.println("Class = " + Map.Entry.class.getCanonicalName());    // -> Class = java.util.Map.Entry
  System.out.println("Class = " + Map.Entry.class.getSimpleName());       // -> Class = Entry 
  }
}