@property 装饰器如何工作?

class C(object):
    def __init__(self):
        self._x = None

    def getx(self):
        return self._x
    def setx(self, value):
        self._x = value
    def delx(self):
        del self._x
    x = property(getx, setx, delx, "I'm the 'x' property.")
class C(object):
    def __init__(self):
        self._x = None

    @property
    def x(self):
        """I'm the 'x' property."""
        return self._x

    @x.setter
    def x(self, value):
        self._x = value

    @x.deleter
    def x(self):
        del self._x

答案

>>> property()
<property object at 0x10ff07940>
>>> property().getter
<built-in method getter of property object at 0x10ff07998>
>>> property().setter
<built-in method setter of property object at 0x10ff07940>
>>> property().deleter
<built-in method deleter of property object at 0x10ff07998>
>>> property().getter(None)
<property object at 0x10ff079f0>
@property
def foo(self): return self._foo
def foo(self): return self._foo
foo = property(foo)
>>> def getter(self): print('Get!')
... 
>>> def setter(self, value): print('Set to {!r}!'.format(value))
... 
>>> def deleter(self): print('Delete!')
... 
>>> prop = property(getter)
>>> prop.fget is getter
True
>>> prop.fset is None
True
>>> prop.fdel is None
True
>>> prop = prop.setter(setter)
>>> prop.fget is getter
True
>>> prop.fset is setter
True
>>> prop.fdel is None
True
>>> prop = prop.deleter(deleter)
>>> prop.fget is getter
True
>>> prop.fset is setter
True
>>> prop.fdel is deleter
True
>>> class Foo: pass
... 
>>> prop.__get__(Foo(), Foo)
Get!
>>> prop.__set__(Foo(), 'bar')
Set to 'bar'!
>>> prop.__delete__(Foo())
Delete!
@property
def x(self):
    return self._x
def getx(self):
    return self._x
x = property(getx)
class Thing:
    def __init__(self, my_word):
        self._word = my_word 
    @property
    def word(self):
        return self._word

>>> print( Thing('ok').word )
'ok'
class Thing:
    def __init__(self, my_word):
        self._word = my_word
    def word(self):
        return self._word

>>> print( Thing('ok').word() )
'ok'
@property
def x(self): ...
def x(self): ...
x = property(x)
@x.setter
def x(self, value): ...
class C(object):
    def __init__(self):
        self._x = None

    @property
    def x(self):
        """I'm the 'x' property."""
        return self._x

    @x.setter
    def x(self, value):
        self._x = value

    @x.deleter
    def x(self):
        del self._x
class C(object):
    def __init__(self):
        self._x = None

    def _x_get(self):
        return self._x

    def _x_set(self, value):
        self._x = value

    def _x_del(self):
        del self._x

    x = property(_x_get, _x_set, _x_del, 
                    "I'm the 'x' property.")
class C(object):
    def __init__(self):
        self._x = None

    def _x_get(self):
        return self._x

    def _x_set(self, value):
        self._x = value

    def _x_del(self):
        del self._x

    x = property(_x_get, doc="I'm the 'x' property.")
    x = x.setter(_x_set)
    x = x.deleter(_x_del)
class C(object):
    def __init__(self):
        self._x = None

    def _x_get(self):
        return self._x
    x = property(_x_get, doc="I'm the 'x' property.")

    def _x_set(self, value):
        self._x = value
    x = x.setter(_x_set)

    def _x_del(self):
        del self._x
    x = x.deleter(_x_del)
class C(object):
    def __init__(self):
        self._x = None

    @property
    def x(self):
        """I'm the 'x' property."""
        return self._x

    @x.setter
    def x(self, value):
        self._x = value

    @x.deleter
    def x(self):
        del self._x
class Money:
    def __init__(self, dollars, cents):
        self.dollars = dollars
        self.cents = cents
money = Money(27, 12)

print("I have {} dollar and {} cents.".format(money.dollars, money.cents))
# prints I have 27 dollar and 12 cents.
class Money:
    def __init__(self, dollars, cents):
        self.total_cents = dollars * 100 + cents
money = Money(27, 12)

print("I have {} dollar and {} cents.".format(money.dollars, money.cents))
class Money:
    def __init__(self, dollars, cents):
        self.total_cents = dollars * 100 + cents

    # Getter and setter for dollars...
    @property
    def dollars(self):
        return self.total_cents // 100

    @dollars.setter
    def dollars(self, new_dollars):
        self.total_cents = 100 * new_dollars + self.cents

    # And the getter and setter for cents.
    @property
    def cents(self):
        return self.total_cents % 100

    @cents.setter
    def cents(self, new_cents):
        self.total_cents = 100 * self.dollars + new_cents
money = Money(27, 12)

print("I have {} dollar and {} cents.".format(money.dollars, money.cents))
# prints I have 27 dollar and 12 cents.
money.dollars += 2
print("I have {} dollar and {} cents.".format(money.dollars, money.cents))
# prints I have 29 dollar and 12 cents.

money.cents += 10
print("I have {} dollar and {} cents.".format(money.dollars, money.cents))
# prints I have 29 dollar and 22 cents.
class User(UserMixin, db.Model):
    __tablename__ = 'users'
    id = db.Column(db.Integer, primary_key=True)
    email = db.Column(db.String(64), unique=True, index=True)
    username = db.Column(db.String(64), unique=True, index=True)
    password_hash = db.Column(db.String(128))

    ...

    @property
    def password(self):
        raise AttributeError('password is not a readable attribute')

    @password.setter
    def password(self, password):
        self.password_hash = generate_password_hash(password)

    def verify_password(self, password):
        return check_password_hash(self.password_hash, password)
...
@auth.route('/register', methods=['GET', 'POST'])
def register():
    form = RegisterForm()
    if form.validate_on_submit():
        user = User(email=form.email.data,
                    username=form.username.data,
                    password=form.password.data)
        db.session.add(user)
        db.session.commit()
...
class UtilityMixin():
    @property
    def get_config(self):
        return "This is property"
util = UtilityMixin()
print(util.get_config)
def decorator_func(fun):
    def wrapper_func():
        print("Wrapper function started")
        fun()
        print("Given function decorated")
        # Wrapper function add something to the passed function and decorator 
        # returns the wrapper function
    return wrapper_func

def say_bye():
    print("bye!!")

say_bye = decorator_func(say_bye)
say_bye()

# Output:
#  Wrapper function started
#  bye
#  Given function decorated
def decorator_func(fun):
    def wrapper_func():
        print("Wrapper function started")
        fun()
        print("Given function decorated")
        # Wrapper function add something to the passed function and decorator 
        # returns the wrapper function
    return wrapper_func

@decorator_func
def say_bye():
    print("bye!!")

say_bye()
class Celsius:
def __init__(self, temperature = 0):
    self.set_temperature(temperature)

def to_fahrenheit(self):
    return (self.get_temperature() * 1.8) + 32

def get_temperature(self):
    return self._temperature

def set_temperature(self, value):
    if value < -273:
        raise ValueError("Temperature below -273 is not possible")
    self._temperature = value
class Celsius:
def __init__(self, temperature = 0):
    self.temperature = temperature

def to_fahrenheit(self):
    return (self.temperature * 1.8) + 32

def get_temperature(self):
    print("Getting value")
    return self.temperature

def set_temperature(self, value):
    if value < -273:
        raise ValueError("Temperature below -273 is not possible")
    print("Setting value")
    self.temperature = value

temperature = property(get_temperature,set_temperature)
temperature = property(get_temperature,set_temperature)
# make empty property
temperature = property()
# assign fget
temperature = temperature.getter(get_temperature)
# assign fset
temperature = temperature.setter(set_temperature)
C = Celsius()
C.temperature
# instead of writing C.get_temperature()
class Celsius:
    def __init__(self, temperature = 0):
        self.temperature = temperature

    def to_fahrenheit(self):
        return (self.temperature * 1.8) + 32

    @property
    def temperature(self):
        print("Getting value")
        return self.temperature

    @temperature.setter
    def temperature(self, value):
        if value < -273:
            raise ValueError("Temperature below -273 is not possible")
        print("Setting value")
        self.temperature = value
class OurClass:

    def __init__(self, a):
        self.x = a


y = OurClass(10)
print(y.x)
class OurClass:

    def __init__(self,x):
        self.x = x

    @property
    def x(self):
        return self.__x

    @x.setter
    def x(self, x):
        if x < 0:
            self.__x = 0
        elif x > 1000:
            self.__x = 1000
        else:
            self.__x = x
print(property) #<class 'property'>
class C:
    def __init__(self):
        self._x=None

    @property 
    def x(self):
        return self._x

    @x.setter 
    def x(self, value):
        self._x = value

    @x.deleter
    def x(self):
        del self._x

c = C()
c.x="a"
print(c.x)
class C:
    def __init__(self):
        self._x=None

    def g(self):
        return self._x

    def s(self, v):
        self._x = v

    def d(self):
        del self._x

    prop = property(g,s,d)

c = C()
c.x="a"
print(c.x)
prop = property(g,s,d)
prop = property(fget=g,fset=s,fdel=d)
|    fget
 |      function to be used for getting an attribute value
 |    fset
 |      function to be used for setting an attribute value
 |    fdel
 |      function to be used for del'ing an attribute
 |    doc
 |      docstring
class C:
    def __init__(self):
        self._x=None

    def g(self):
        return self._x

    def s(self, x):
        self._x = x

    def d(self):
        del self._x

    def s2(self,x):
        self._x=x+x


    x=property(g)
    x=x.setter(s)
    x=x.deleter(d)      


c = C()
c.x="a"
print(c.x) # outputs "a"

C.x=property(C.g, C.s2)
C.x=C.x.deleter(C.d)
c2 = C()
c2.x="a"
print(c2.x) # outputs "aa"