如何在 Python 中创建常量?

public static final String CONST_NAME = "Name";

答案

class Foo(object):
    CONST_NAME = "Name"
CONST_NAME = "Name"
from typing import Final

a: Final = 1

# Executes fine, but mypy will report an error if you run mypy on this:
a = 2
def constant(f):
    def fset(self, value):
        raise TypeError
    def fget(self):
        return f()
    return property(fget, fset)

class _Const(object):
    @constant
    def FOO():
        return 0xBAADFACE
    @constant
    def BAR():
        return 0xDEADBEEF

CONST = _Const()

print CONST.FOO
##3131964110

CONST.FOO = 0
##Traceback (most recent call last):
##    ...
##    CONST.FOO = 0
##TypeError: None
class _Const(object):
    @apply
    def FOO():
        def fset(self, value):
            raise TypeError
        def fget(self):
            return 0xBAADFACE
        return property(**locals())

CONST = _Const()

print CONST.FOO
##3131964110

CONST.FOO = 0
##Traceback (most recent call last):
##    ...
##    CONST.FOO = 0
##TypeError: None
MY_CONSTANT = "one"
def MY_CONSTANT():
    return "one"
>>> from collections import namedtuple
>>> Constants = namedtuple('Constants', ['pi', 'e'])
>>> constants = Constants(3.14, 2.718)
>>> constants.pi
3.14
>>> constants.pi = 3
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
AttributeError: can't set attribute
class CONST(object):
    __slots__ = ()
    FOO = 1234

CONST = CONST()

# ----------

print(CONST.FOO)    # 1234

CONST.FOO = 4321              # AttributeError: 'CONST' object attribute 'FOO' is read-only
CONST.__dict__['FOO'] = 4321  # AttributeError: 'CONST' object has no attribute '__dict__'
CONST.BAR = 5678              # AttributeError: 'CONST' object has no attribute 'BAR'
class CONST(object):
    FOO = 1234

    def __setattr__(self, *_):
        pass

CONST = CONST()

#----------

print CONST.FOO    # 1234

CONST.FOO = 4321
CONST.BAR = 5678

print CONST.FOO    # Still 1234!
print CONST.BAR    # Oops AttributeError
def MY_CONSTANT():
    return 42
>>> from named_constants import Constants
>>> class Colors(Constants):
...     black = 0
...     red = 1
...     white = 15
...
>>> c = Colors.black
>>> c == 0
True
>>> c
Colors.black
>>> c.name()
'black'
>>> Colors(0) is c
True
class MetaConst(type):
    def __getattr__(cls, key):
        return cls[key]

    def __setattr__(cls, key, value):
        raise TypeError
class Const(object):
    __metaclass__ = MetaConst

    def __getattr__(self, name):
        return self[name]

    def __setattr__(self, name, value):
        raise TypeError
class Const(object, metaclass=MetaConst):
    def __getattr__(self, name):
        return self[name]

    def __setattr__(self, name, value):
        raise TypeError
class MyConst(Const):
    A = 1
    B = 2
MyConst.A
# 1
my_const = MyConst()
my_const.A
# 1

MyConst.A = 'changed'
# TypeError
my_const.A = 'changed'
# TypeError
class MyFinalProperty(object):

    @property
    def name(self):
        return "John"
# ---------- Constants.py ----------
class Constants(object):
    """
    Create objects with read-only (constant) attributes.
    Example:
        Nums = Constants(ONE=1, PI=3.14159, DefaultWidth=100.0)
        print 10 + Nums.PI
        print '----- Following line is deliberate ValueError -----'
        Nums.PI = 22
    """

    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        self._d = dict(*args, **kwargs)

    def __iter__(self):
        return iter(self._d)

    def __len__(self):
        return len(self._d)

    # NOTE: This is only called if self lacks the attribute.
    # So it does not interfere with get of 'self._d', etc.
    def __getattr__(self, name):
        return self._d[name]

    # ASSUMES '_..' attribute is OK to set. Need this to initialize 'self._d', etc.
    #If use as keys, they won't be constant.
    def __setattr__(self, name, value):
        if (name[0] == '_'):
            super(Constants, self).__setattr__(name, value)
        else:
            raise ValueError("setattr while locked", self)

if (__name__ == "__main__"):
    # Usage example.
    Nums = Constants(ONE=1, PI=3.14159, DefaultWidth=100.0)
    print 10 + Nums.PI
    print '----- Following line is deliberate ValueError -----'
    Nums.PI = 22
public class Foo {
  public static final String CONST_NAME = "Name";
}
from collections import namedtuple
Foo = namedtuple('_Foo', 'CONST_NAME')('Name')
>>> Foo.CONST_NAME
'Name'
>>> Foo.CONST_NAME = 'bar'
…
AttributeError: can't set attribute
>>> Foo = 'bar'