如何将 std :: string 转换为 const char * 或 char *?

如何将std::string转换为char*const char*

答案

std::string str;
const char * c = str.c_str();
std::string str;
char * writable = new char[str.size() + 1];
std::copy(str.begin(), str.end(), writable);
writable[str.size()] = '\0'; // don't forget the terminating 0

// don't forget to free the string after finished using it
delete[] writable;
std::string str;
boost::scoped_array<char> writable(new char[str.size() + 1]);
std::copy(str.begin(), str.end(), writable.get());
writable[str.size()] = '\0'; // don't forget the terminating 0

// get the char* using writable.get()

// memory is automatically freed if the smart pointer goes 
// out of scope
std::string str;
std::vector<char> writable(str.begin(), str.end());
writable.push_back('\0');

// get the char* using &writable[0] or &*writable.begin()
std::string x = "hello";
const char* p_c_str = x.c_str();
const char* p_data  = x.data();
char* p_writable_data = x.data(); // for non-const x from C++17 
const char* p_x0    = &x[0];

      char* p_x0_rw = &x[0];  // compiles iff x is not const...
char c = p[n];   // valid for n <= x.size()
                 // i.e. you can safely read the NUL at p[x.size()]
p_writable_data[n] = c;
p_x0_rw[n] = c;  // valid for n <= x.size() - 1
                 // i.e. don't overwrite the implementation maintained NUL
// USING ANOTHER STRING - AUTO MEMORY MANAGEMENT, EXCEPTION SAFE
std::string old_x = x;
// - old_x will not be affected by subsequent modifications to x...
// - you can use `&old_x[0]` to get a writable char* to old_x's textual content
// - you can use resize() to reduce/expand the string
//   - resizing isn't possible from within a function passed only the char* address

std::string old_x = x.c_str(); // old_x will terminate early if x embeds NUL
// Copies ASCIIZ data but could be less efficient as it needs to scan memory to
// find the NUL terminator indicating string length before allocating that amount
// of memory to copy into, or more efficient if it ends up allocating/copying a
// lot less content.
// Example, x == "ab\0cd" -> old_x == "ab".

// USING A VECTOR OF CHAR - AUTO, EXCEPTION SAFE, HINTS AT BINARY CONTENT, GUARANTEED CONTIGUOUS EVEN IN C++03
std::vector<char> old_x(x.data(), x.data() + x.size());       // without the NUL
std::vector<char> old_x(x.c_str(), x.c_str() + x.size() + 1);  // with the NUL

// USING STACK WHERE MAXIMUM SIZE OF x IS KNOWN TO BE COMPILE-TIME CONSTANT "N"
// (a bit dangerous, as "known" things are sometimes wrong and often become wrong)
char y[N + 1];
strcpy(y, x.c_str());

// USING STACK WHERE UNEXPECTEDLY LONG x IS TRUNCATED (e.g. Hello\0->Hel\0)
char y[N + 1];
strncpy(y, x.c_str(), N);  // copy at most N, zero-padding if shorter
y[N] = '\0';               // ensure NUL terminated

// USING THE STACK TO HANDLE x OF UNKNOWN (BUT SANE) LENGTH
char* y = alloca(x.size() + 1);
strcpy(y, x.c_str());

// USING THE STACK TO HANDLE x OF UNKNOWN LENGTH (NON-STANDARD GCC EXTENSION)
char y[x.size() + 1];
strcpy(y, x.c_str());

// USING new/delete HEAP MEMORY, MANUAL DEALLOC, NO INHERENT EXCEPTION SAFETY
char* y = new char[x.size() + 1];
strcpy(y, x.c_str());
//     or as a one-liner: char* y = strcpy(new char[x.size() + 1], x.c_str());
// use y...
delete[] y; // make sure no break, return, throw or branching bypasses this

// USING new/delete HEAP MEMORY, SMART POINTER DEALLOCATION, EXCEPTION SAFE
// see boost shared_array usage in Johannes Schaub's answer

// USING malloc/free HEAP MEMORY, MANUAL DEALLOC, NO INHERENT EXCEPTION SAFETY
char* y = strdup(x.c_str());
// use y...
free(y);

const char *使用.c_str()方法。

您可以使用&mystring[0]获取char *指针,但是有一些陷阱:您不一定会得到零终止的字符串,也无法更改字符串的大小。您尤其要注意不要在字符串末尾添加字符,否则会导致缓冲区溢出(并可能崩溃)。

在 C ++ 11 之前,无法保证所有字符都将是同一连续缓冲区的一部分,但实际上,所有已知的std::string实现都以这种方式工作;请参见“&s [0]” 是否指向 std :: string 中的连续字符?

请注意,许多string成员函数将重新分配内部缓冲区,并使您可能保存的所有指针无效。最好立即使用它们,然后丢弃。

std::string const cstr = { "..." };
char const * p = cstr.data(); // or .c_str()
std::string str = { "..." };
char * p = str.data();
std::string str = { "..." };
str.c_str();
std::string foo{"text"};
auto p = &*foo.begin();
std::string foo{"text"};
std::vector<char> fcv(foo.data(), foo.data()+foo.size()+1u);
auto p = fcv.data();
std::string foo{"text"};
std::array<char, 5u> fca;
std::copy(foo.data(), foo.data()+foo.size()+1u, fca.begin());
std::string foo{ "text" };
auto p = std::make_unique<char[]>(foo.size()+1u);
std::copy(foo.data(), foo.data() + foo.size() + 1u, &p[0]);
std::string foo{ "text" };
char * p = nullptr;
try
{
  p = new char[foo.size() + 1u];
  std::copy(foo.data(), foo.data() + foo.size() + 1u, p);
  // handle stuff with p
  delete[] p;
}
catch (...)
{
  if (p) { delete[] p; }
  throw;
}
class DeepString
{
        DeepString(const DeepString& other);
        DeepString& operator=(const DeepString& other);
        char* internal_; 

    public:
        explicit DeepString( const string& toCopy): 
            internal_(new char[toCopy.size()+1]) 
        {
            strcpy(internal_,toCopy.c_str());
        }
        ~DeepString() { delete[] internal_; }
        char* str() const { return internal_; }
        const char* c_str()  const { return internal_; }
};
void aFunctionAPI(char* input);

//  other stuff

aFunctionAPI("Foo"); //this call is not safe. if the function modified the 
                     //literal string the program will crash
std::string myFoo("Foo");
aFunctionAPI(myFoo.c_str()); //this is not compiling
aFunctionAPI(const_cast<char*>(myFoo.c_str())); //this is not safe std::string 
                                                //implement reference counting and 
                                                //it may change the value of other
                                                //strings as well.
DeepString myDeepFoo(myFoo);
aFunctionAPI(myFoo.str()); //this is fine
string str1("stackoverflow");
const char * str2 = str1.c_str();
char* result = strcpy((char*)malloc(str.length()+1), str.c_str());
std::string s(reinterpret_cast<const char *>(Data), Size);