如何修剪 Bash 变量中的空格?

var=`hg st -R "$path"`
if [ -n "$var" ]; then
    echo $var
fi

答案

FOO=' test test test '
echo -e "FOO='${FOO}'"
# > FOO=' test test test '
echo -e "length(FOO)==${#FOO}"
# > length(FOO)==16
FOO=' test test test '
FOO_NO_WHITESPACE="$(echo -e "${FOO}" | tr -d '[:space:]')"
echo -e "FOO_NO_WHITESPACE='${FOO_NO_WHITESPACE}'"
# > FOO_NO_WHITESPACE='testtesttest'
echo -e "length(FOO_NO_WHITESPACE)==${#FOO_NO_WHITESPACE}"
# > length(FOO_NO_WHITESPACE)==12
FOO=' test test test '
FOO_NO_LEAD_SPACE="$(echo -e "${FOO}" | sed -e 's/^[[:space:]]*//')"
echo -e "FOO_NO_LEAD_SPACE='${FOO_NO_LEAD_SPACE}'"
# > FOO_NO_LEAD_SPACE='test test test '
echo -e "length(FOO_NO_LEAD_SPACE)==${#FOO_NO_LEAD_SPACE}"
# > length(FOO_NO_LEAD_SPACE)==15
FOO=' test test test '
FOO_NO_TRAIL_SPACE="$(echo -e "${FOO}" | sed -e 's/[[:space:]]*$//')"
echo -e "FOO_NO_TRAIL_SPACE='${FOO_NO_TRAIL_SPACE}'"
# > FOO_NO_TRAIL_SPACE=' test test test'
echo -e "length(FOO_NO_TRAIL_SPACE)==${#FOO_NO_TRAIL_SPACE}"
# > length(FOO_NO_TRAIL_SPACE)==15
FOO=' test test test '
FOO_NO_EXTERNAL_SPACE="$(echo -e "${FOO}" | sed -e 's/^[[:space:]]*//' -e 's/[[:space:]]*$//')"
echo -e "FOO_NO_EXTERNAL_SPACE='${FOO_NO_EXTERNAL_SPACE}'"
# > FOO_NO_EXTERNAL_SPACE='test test test'
echo -e "length(FOO_NO_EXTERNAL_SPACE)==${#FOO_NO_EXTERNAL_SPACE}"
# > length(FOO_NO_EXTERNAL_SPACE)==14
FOO_NO_TRAIL_SPACE="$(sed -e 's/[[:space:]]*$//' <<<${FOO})"
echo "   lol  " | xargs
var="    abc    "
# remove leading whitespace characters
var="${var#"${var%%[![:space:]]*}"}"
# remove trailing whitespace characters
var="${var%"${var##*[![:space:]]}"}"   
echo "===$var==="
trim() {
    local var="$*"
    # remove leading whitespace characters
    var="${var#"${var%%[![:space:]]*}"}"
    # remove trailing whitespace characters
    var="${var%"${var##*[![:space:]]}"}"   
    echo -n "$var"
}
trim "   abc   "
$ var='abc def'
$ echo "$var"
abc def
# Note: flussence's original expression was "${var/ /}", which only replaced the *first* space char., wherever it appeared.
$ echo -n "${var//[[:space:]]/}"
abcdef
echo $variable | xargs echo -n
echo "  this string has a lot       of spaces " | xargs echo -n
trim()
{
    local trimmed="$1"

    # Strip leading space.
    trimmed="${trimmed## }"
    # Strip trailing space.
    trimmed="${trimmed%% }"

    echo "$trimmed"
}
test1="$(trim " one leading")"
test2="$(trim "one trailing ")"
test3="$(trim " one leading and one trailing ")"
echo "'$test1', '$test2', '$test3'"
'one leading', 'one trailing', 'one leading and one trailing'
trim()
{
    local trimmed="$1"

    # Strip leading spaces.
    while [[ $trimmed == ' '* ]]; do
       trimmed="${trimmed## }"
    done
    # Strip trailing spaces.
    while [[ $trimmed == *' ' ]]; do
        trimmed="${trimmed%% }"
    done

    echo "$trimmed"
}
test4="$(trim "  two leading")"
test5="$(trim "two trailing  ")"
test6="$(trim "  two leading and two trailing  ")"
echo "'$test4', '$test5', '$test6'"
'two leading', 'two trailing', 'two leading and two trailing'
#Turn on extended globbing  
shopt -s extglob  
 #Trim leading and trailing whitespace from a variable  
x=${x##+([[:space:]])}; x=${x%%+([[:space:]])}  
 #Turn off extended globbing  
shopt -u extglob
trim() {
    # Determine if 'extglob' is currently on.
    local extglobWasOff=1
    shopt extglob >/dev/null && extglobWasOff=0 
    (( extglobWasOff )) && shopt -s extglob # Turn 'extglob' on, if currently turned off.
    # Trim leading and trailing whitespace
    local var=$1
    var=${var##+([[:space:]])}
    var=${var%%+([[:space:]])}
    (( extglobWasOff )) && shopt -u extglob # If 'extglob' was off before, turn it back off.
    echo -n "$var"  # Output trimmed string.
}
string="   abc def ghi  ";
#need to quote input-string to preserve internal white-space if any
trimmed=$(trim "$string");  
echo "$trimmed";
trim() {
    shopt -s extglob
    set -- "${1##+([[:space:]])}"
    printf "%s" "${1%%+([[:space:]])}" 
}
$ s=$'\t\n \r\tfoo  '
$ shopt -u extglob
$ shopt extglob
extglob         off
$ printf ">%q<\n" "$s" "$(trim "$s")"
>$'\t\n \r\tfoo  '<
>foo<
$ shopt extglob
extglob         off
foo=" qsdqsd qsdqs q qs   "

# Not trimmed
echo \'$foo\'

# Trim
foo=`echo $foo`

# Trimmed
echo \'$foo\'
var=`hg st -R "$path" | sed -e 's/  *$//'`

启用 Bash 的扩展模式匹配功能( shopt -s extglob )后,您可以使用以下命令:

{trimmed##*( )}

删除任意数量的前导空格。